Some women start to manifest symptoms of menopause before the age of 40, in these cases we talk of primary ovarian failure (PMO) and it consists in the definitive interruption of the menstrual cycle which usually follows a period of irregularity in the cycle. The diagnosis can be established by a doctor based on blood tests of the hormonal profile and anti-Mullerian hormone.
The causes can be genetic (Turner's syndrome), autoimmune, enzymatic and metabolic defects, pelvic surgeries (removal of the ovaries due to endometriosis), chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatments. Today it is still possible to get pregnant also in early menopause thanks to egg donation.
The timely diagnosis of early ovarian failure is very important: there are in fact forms of occult ovarian failure which, if diagnosed in time, allow to carry out medically assisted procreation treatments, such as egg freezing to preserve fertility.
Early menopause may imply a decrease in the self-esteem of the woman who suffers from it. It is therefore important to also address a therapeutic path for emotional well-being.